SDLC: Maintnance and Operation




a. Identify Systems Operations.

b. Maintain Data servers/ Maintain web servers.

c. Modification Process/change requests.

d. Maintain Software.

e. Documentation Update.



a. Performance review.

b. User satisfaction review.


a. Documentation.


Depending on the source, up to 70% of the life cycle costs are attributed to the maintenance and operations of software systems. There are modifications to
existing code, new code needs to be developed and hardware configuration could change. Providing user support is an ongoing activity. New users will
require training. There are two major goals to be achieved: users’ needs are met and the system continues to perform as specified in the operational
environment. Additionally, as maintenance and operations personnel monitor the current system they may become aware of better ways to improve the system
and make recommendations. Changes will be required to fix problems, possibly add features and make improvements.

This phase will continue as long as the system is in use.


 a. Identify Systems Operations

Operations support is an integral part of the day to day operations of a system. Operations Manual defines tasks and activities and will need to be updated
as changes occur. Systems operations activities and tasks need to be scheduled, on a recurring basis, to ensure that the production environment is fully
functional and is performing as specified.

Examples of systems operations:

  • Making sure that systems and networks are running and are available during the defined hours of Operations
  • Backups
  • Making sure adequate personnel have proper security permissions/access rights assigned
  • Making sure plan for disaster recovery is current and tested
  • Making sure users are trained
  • Making sure service level agreements are kept accurate and monitored
  • Maintain performance measurements, statistics, and system logs.

Monitor the performance statistics, report the results and escalate problems when they occur.

b. Maintain Data servers/ Maintain web servers


  • Control reports (data only)
  • Checking jobs
  • Other daily checking
  • Installing, configuring, upgrading and maintaining data bases/ web applications
  • Backup and recovery routines for data integrity and recoverability. Documented properly in the Operations Manual
  • Developing and maintaining a performance and tuning plan
  • Performing configuration/design audits to ensure software, system, parameter configuration are correct

c. Modification Process/change requests

Define modification process.

d. Maintain Software

Daily maintenance activities for the system

e. Documentation Update


· Systems Manager. The Systems Manager develops, documents and execute plans and procedures for conducting activities and tasks of the Maintenance Process.

  • Technical Support . Personnel which proved technical support to the program. This support may involve granting access rights to the program. Setup of
    workstations to access the system. Maintaining the operating system for both server and workstation. Technical support personnel may be involved with
    issuing user ids or login names and passwords. In a Client server environment technical support may perform systems scheduled backups and operating
    system maintenance during downtime.
  • Operations or Operators (turn on/off systems, start tasks, backup etc). The operator performs scheduled backup, performs maintenance during downtime
    and is responsible to ensure the system is online and available for users. Operators may be involved with issuing user ids or login names and passwords
    for the system.
  • Data Administrator. Performs tasks which ensure that accurate and valid data are entered into the system. Sometimes this person creates the information
    systems database, maintains the databases security and develops plans for disaster recovery. The data administrator responsibilities include
    maintaining the databases data dictionary. The data dictionary provides a description of each field in the database, the field characteristics and what
    data is maintained with the field.


 a. Performance review

Review activities occur periodically.

Each time the system is reviewed, one of three of the following decisions will be made:

  • The system is operating as intended and meeting performance expectations.
  • The system is not operating as intended and needs corrections or modifications.
  • The users are/are not satisfied with the operation and performance of the system.

Review will be performed to evaluate performance, user satisfaction and new technologies that might improve the system.

This review is diagnostic in nature.

b. User satisfaction review


a. Documentation

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